Albany Pure™ Graphene
ZEN Graphene Products are all exclusively made from Albany Pure™ Graphite, sourced from the Albany deposit. The unique Albany Graphite Project provides the company with a potential long-term competitive advantage in the graphene market.
Independent labs in Japan, UK, Israel, USA and Canada have independently demonstrated that ZEN’s Albany Graphite is an ideal precursor material which easily converts (exfoliates) to graphene, using a variety of mechanical, chemical and electrochemical methods.
ZEN’s unique graphene precursor material is ideal for the production of graphene and graphene derivatives that can be used in a wide variety of applications.
The Albany Advantage
Albany Pure™ Graphene is produced from ZEN’s globally rare, igneous related, fluid-derived Albany graphite. The unique genesis of the Albany deposit. resulting in very fine-grained graphite crystallites, yields an ideal graphite precursor material for conversion to high-value graphene, graphene oxide and graphene quantum dots.
1. Unique Graphene Precursor Material – Size, Consistency, Formation/Particle size
The unique structural form of Albany graphite is proving to be ideally suited for making high-quality graphene and graphene derivative nanomaterial products.
2. Ease of Conversion to Graphene
Three main factors provide an ease of converting graphite into graphene:
- The Albany graphite’s flake size averages 9 μm (microns). Starting with a smaller flake requires significantly less energy to exfoliate into graphene.
- The turbostratic nature of the material (the arrangement of the graphene sheets in the graphite are slightly tilted and irregular stacked).
- A slightly larger D-spacing (the distance between layers).
3. Ease of Dispersion – A Key Quality for Applications
Albany Pure™ Graphene products are consistent high-quality nanomaterial with excellent dispersion properties. Albany Pure™ Graphene is highly suitable for enhancing present day composite materials.
- Lightest and thinnest material known at 0.34nm (1 millionth the thickness of human hair)
- 200x stronger than steel
- High thermal conductivity for thermal management applications
- Almost invisible (1 layer only absorbs 2.3% visible light)
- Graphene is the most stretchable crystal; it can be stretched up to 120% of its initial size without breaking
- Large surface area (~2,630 m2/g)
- High electrical current density at room temperature; greater than silver and copper
- Impermeable to all gases, and has the ability to absorb 2.3% visible light
- High electron mobility (250,000 cm2V-1s-1) compared to Silicon (1400 cm2V-1s-1)
International Standards Organization – ISO Standards for Graphene:
Graphene is defined as a two-dimensional crystal (atomic layer) of carbon and is the building block for graphitic materials. A typical carbon atom has a diameter of about 0.34 nanometers (a strand of human DNA is 2.5 nanometers in diameter).
There is no single type of graphene, but instead a large family consisting of graphene or graphene-based materials. There is a wide variation from producer to producer regarding their graphene materials and the specifications reported across different product datasheets.
International standard (ISO) published in 2017, led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), defines the terminology used to describe the many different forms of graphene providing clarity among suppliers and buyers.
|# of sheets||Product Description|
|1-3||Very few layer graphene (vFLG)|
|2-5||Few layer graphene (FLG)|
|2-10||Multilayer graphene (MLG)|
|>10||Exfoliated graphite or Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNP)|
Graphene suppliers are primarily differentiated by their production method, which determines their cost, capacity, and quality of production.
The Albany Graphite Deposit
A unique source to produce high purity graphite that exfoliates more easily to produce Albany Pure™ Graphene.
The Albany Deposit is a very rare, large resource of igneous-hosted, fluid-derived micro-crystalline graphite mineralization contained in two adjacent breccia pipes.
Due to the relatively rapid volcanic eruptive process, under which the deposit formed, the graphite mineralization was essentially ‘flash frozen’ to form fine graphite crystallites. This does not occur with flake graphite which forms through a much slower process of recrystallization of organic carbonaceous material during regional metamorphism resulting in the growth of much larger graphite crystals.
Both breccia pipes extend to a minimum of 500 metres and are open at depth. Overlain by muskeg, glacial till and Paleozoic carbonate rocks of the James Bay Lowlands, there is no surface expression.
Petrography and geochemistry by Lakehead University Prof. Andrew G. Conly and his research group indicates that the graphite occurs in the breccia matrix as disseminated crystals, crystal aggregates and veins as well as along crystal boundaries and smaller veins penetrating the breccia fragments. The gangue mineralogy of the matrix consists predominantly of feldspar, moderate quartz, minor phlogopite and amphibole as well as trace amounts of pyrite, pyrrhotite and magnetite. A syenite sill post-dates the graphite mineralization and intrudes both pipes.
Prof. Conly interprets the graphite deposit as near surface volcanic vent breccias formed during the ascent of carbon-rich fluids (carbon dioxide and methane) that separated from the alkalic magmas of the Albany Alkalic Complex. For details on the geology and genesis of this unique deposit, please read the 2015 white paper by Conly and Moore.
Albany Pure™ Graphite Deposit – ZEN’s Graphene Precursor Material
RPA Resource Estimate (does not include mineralization below the sill)
Deposit open at depth
The Albany Project Location
The Albany Graphite Deposit is located in northeastern Ontario, near the community of Constance Lake First Nation and the town of Hearst, about 30 km north of the Trans-Canada Highway. Infrastructure including power lines and a natural gas pipeline are located nearby with a rail line 70 km away and a forestry access road 9 km to the south.
ZEN is actively collaborating with multiple industrial end-users and academic graphene research participants in Canada and around the world.
Some of ZEN’s Past and Present Canadian Academic Partners include:
- University of Guelph: Dr. Chen and The Chen Group
- University of Toronto: Dr. Kumacheva, Dr. Panesar, and Dr. Filleter
- University of Western Ontario: Dr. Fanchini, Dr. Kuboki
- University of British Columbia: Dr. Bichler, Dr. Kheirkhah, Dr. Ajmand, Dr. Golovin, Dr. Rteil
- University of Waterloo: Dr. Pope
ZEN, in collaboration with its academic partners, continues to develop new graphene production processes and novel applications.
Current Research & Development:
- Synthesis and production of Graphene, Graphene Oxide and Graphene Quantum Dots;
- Graphene Functionalized Polymers and Elastomers in the automotive and military industries;
- Graphene in Aluminum;
- Graphene as an Anti-Corrosion Material;
- Graphene in advanced battery applications;
- Enhanced Concrete & ZEN Tailings as a Cement Replacement;
- Graphene Oxide & Jet/Diesel Fuel;
- Water Membrane Desalination;
- Nanocolloidal Graphene-derived Hydrogels for water purification and remediation solution.
Contact us to learn more about ZEN’s collaboration and partnership opportunities.